January 22, 2024

Alexander Esterov

Geometry of sparse systems of polynomial equations (i.e. the ones with prescribed monomials and generic coefficients) is well studied in terms of their Newton polytopes. The results of this study are colloquially known as the Bernstein--Kouchnirenko--Khovanskii toolkit, and unfortunately are not applicable to many important systems, whose coefficients slightly fail to be generic. This for instance happens if some of the equations are obtained from another one by taking partial derivatives or permuting the variables, or the equations are linear, realizing a non-trivial matroid, or in more advanced settings such as generalized Calabi--Yau complete intersections. Such interesting examples (as well as many others) turn out to belong to a natural class of ``systems of equations that are nondegenerate upon cancellations''. We extend to this class several classical and folklore results of the Bernstein--Kouchnirenko--Khovanskii toolkit, such as the ones regarding the number and regularity of solutions, their irreducibility, tropicalization and Calabi--Yau-ness.

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