May 31, 2024

Per Berglund, Giorgi Butbaia, Yang-Hui He, Elli Heyes, Edward Hirst, Vishnu Jejjala

We apply reinforcement learning (RL) to generate fine regular star triangulations of reflexive polytopes, that give rise to smooth Calabi-Yau (CY) hypersurfaces. We demonstrate that, by simple modifications to the data encoding and reward function, one can search for CYs that satisfy a set of desirable string compactification conditions. For instance, we show that our RL algorithm can generate triangulations together with holomorphic vector bundles that satisfy anomaly cancellation and poly-stability conditions in heterotic compactification. Furthermore, we show that our algorithm can be used to search for reflexive subpolytopes together with compatible triangulations that define fibration structures of the CYs.

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May 14, 2024

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Nate MacFadden, Andreas Schachner, Elijah Sheridan

We implement Genetic Algorithms for triangulations of four-dimensional reflexive polytopes which induce Calabi-Yau threefold hypersurfaces via Batryev's construction. We demonstrate that such algorithms efficiently optimize physical observables such as axion decay constants or axion-photon couplings in string theory compactifications. For our implementation, we choose a parameterization of triangulations that yields homotopy inequivalent Calabi-Yau threefolds by extending fin...

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Mehmet Demirtas, Liam McAllister, Andres Rios-Tascon

We study Calabi-Yau threefolds with large Hodge numbers by constructing and counting triangulations of reflexive polytopes. By counting points in the associated secondary polytopes, we show that the number of fine, regular, star triangulations of polytopes in the Kreuzer-Skarke list is bounded above by $\binom{14,111}{494} \approx 10^{928}$. Adapting a result of Anclin on triangulations of lattice polygons, we obtain a bound on the number of triangulations of each 2-face of e...

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Ross Altman, Jonathan Carifio, ... , Nelson Brent D.

We provide the first estimate of the number of fine, regular, star triangulations of the four-dimensional reflexive polytopes, as classified by Kreuzer and Skarke (KS). This provides an upper bound on the number of Calabi-Yau threefold hypersurfaces in toric varieties. The estimate is performed with deep learning, specifically the novel equation learner (EQL) architecture. We demonstrate that EQL networks accurately predict numbers of triangulations far beyond the $h^{1,1}$ t...

November 14, 2021

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Steven Abel, Andrei Constantin, ... , Lukas Andre

We investigate reinforcement learning and genetic algorithms in the context of heterotic Calabi-Yau models with monad bundles. Both methods are found to be highly efficient in identifying phenomenologically attractive three-family models, in cases where systematic scans are not feasible. For monads on the bi-cubic Calabi-Yau either method facilitates a complete search of the environment and leads to similar sets of previously unknown three-family models.

March 10, 2020

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Magdalena Larfors, Robin Schneider

We use deep reinforcement learning to explore a class of heterotic $SU(5)$ GUT models constructed from line bundle sums over Complete Intersection Calabi Yau (CICY) manifolds. We perform several experiments where A3C agents are trained to search for such models. These agents significantly outperform random exploration, in the most favourable settings by a factor of 1700 when it comes to finding unique models. Furthermore, we find evidence that the trained agents also outperfo...

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Andrei Constantin, Thomas R. Harvey, Andre Lukas

We use reinforcement learning as a means of constructing string compactifications with prescribed properties. Specifically, we study heterotic SO(10) GUT models on Calabi-Yau three-folds with monad bundles, in search of phenomenologically promising examples. Due to the vast number of bundles and the sparseness of viable choices, methods based on systematic scanning are not suitable for this class of models. By focusing on two specific manifolds with Picard numbers two and thr...

February 15, 2022

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Vishnu Jejjala, Washington Taylor, Andrew Turner

We review briefly the characteristic topological data of Calabi--Yau threefolds and focus on the question of when two threefolds are equivalent through related topological data. This provides an interesting test case for machine learning methodology in discrete mathematics problems motivated by physics.

September 19, 2023

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Nate MacFadden

We present an algorithm for efficiently exploring inequivalent Calabi-Yau threefold hypersurfaces in toric varieties. A direct enumeration of fine, regular, star triangulations (FRSTs) of polytopes in the Kreuzer-Skarke database is foreseeably impossible due to the large count of distinct FRSTs. Moreover, such an enumeration is needlessly redundant because many such triangulations have the same restrictions to 2-faces and hence, by Wall's theorem, lead to equivalent Calabi-Ya...

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Maximilian Kreuzer, Harald Skarke

During the last years we have generated a large number of data related to Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in toric varieties which can be described by reflexive polyhedra. We classified all reflexive polyhedra in three dimensions leading to K3 hypersurfaces and have nearly completed the four dimensional case relevant to Calabi-Yau threefolds. In addition, we have analysed for many of the resulting spaces whether they allow fibration structures of the types that are relevant in the c...

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Yang-Hui He

We present a pedagogical introduction to the recent advances in the computational geometry, physical implications, and data science of Calabi-Yau manifolds. Aimed at the beginning research student and using Calabi-Yau spaces as an exciting play-ground, we intend to teach some mathematics to the budding physicist, some physics to the budding mathematician, and some machine-learning to both. Based on various lecture series, colloquia and seminars given by the author in the past...