April 2, 2024

Oleksandr Gamayun, Oleg Lychkovskiy

A mobile impurity particle immersed in a quantum fluid forms a polaron - a quasiparticle consisting of the impurity and a local disturbance of the fluid around it. We ask what happens to a one-dimensional polaron after a kick, i.e. an abrupt application of a force that instantly delivers a finite impulse to the impurity. In the framework of an integrable model describing an impurity in a one-dimensional gas of fermions or hard-core bosons, we calculate the distribution of the polaron momentum established when the post-kick relaxation is over. A remarkable feature of this distribution is a two-sided power-law singularity that can correspond to one of two processes. In the first process, the whole impulse is transferred to the polaron, without creating phonon-like excitations of the fluid. In the second process, the impulse is shared between the polaron and the center-of-mass motion of the fluid, again without creating any fluid excitations. The latter process is, in fact, a Bragg reflection at the edge of the emergent Brillouin zone. We carefully analyze the conditions for each of the two cases and derive the asymptotic form of the distribution in the vicinity of the singularity.

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