April 21, 2022

Yang-Hui He, Kyu-Hwan Lee, Thomas Oliver, Alexey Pozdnyakov

We investigate the average value of the $p$th Dirichlet coefficients of elliptic curves for a prime p in a fixed conductor range with given rank. Plotting this average yields a striking oscillating pattern, the details of which vary with the rank. Based on this observation, we perform various data-scientific experiments with the goal of classifying elliptic curves according to their ranks.

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March 26, 2024

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Zvonimir Bujanović, Matija Kazalicki, Lukas Novak

This paper investigates the detection of the rank of elliptic curves with ranks 0 and 1, employing a heuristic known as the Mestre-Nagao sum \[ S(B) = \frac{1}{\log{B}} \sum_{\substack{p<B \\ \textrm{good reduction}}} \frac{a_p(E)\log{p}}{p}, \] where $a_p(E)$ is defined as $p + 1 - \#E(\mathbb{F}_p)$ for an elliptic curve $E/\mathbb{Q}$ with good reduction at prime $p$. This approach is inspired by the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture. Our observations reveal an osci...

November 28, 2017

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Bjorn Poonen

This is an introduction to a probabilistic model for the arithmetic of elliptic curves, a model developed in a series of articles of the author with Bhargava, Kane, Lenstra, Park, Rains, Voight, and Wood. We discuss the theoretical evidence for the model, and we make predictions about elliptic curves based on corresponding theorems proved about the model. In particular, the model suggests that all but finitely many elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ have rank $\le 21$, which w...

November 7, 2016

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Alvaro Lozano-Robledo

In this article, we propose a new probabilistic model for the distribution of ranks of elliptic curves in families of fixed Selmer rank, and compare the predictions with previous results, and with the databases of curves over the rationals that we have at our disposal. In addition, we document a phenomenon we refer to as Selmer bias that seems to play an important role in the data and in our models.

February 5, 2016

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Jennifer S. Balakrishnan, Wei Ho, Nathan Kaplan, Simon Spicer, ... , Weigandt James

Most systematic tables of data associated to ranks of elliptic curves order the curves by conductor. Recent developments, led by work of Bhargava-Shankar studying the average sizes of $n$-Selmer groups, have given new upper bounds on the average algebraic rank in families of elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ ordered by height. We describe databases of elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ ordered by height in which we compute ranks and $2$-Selmer group sizes, the distributions of...

July 14, 2022

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Matija Kazalicki, Domagoj Vlah

Determining the rank of an elliptic curve E/Q is a hard problem, and in some applications (e.g. when searching for curves of high rank) one has to rely on heuristics aimed at estimating the analytic rank (which is equal to the rank under the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture). In this paper, we develop rank classification heuristics modeled by deep convolutional neural networks (CNN). Similarly to widely used Mestre-Nagao sums, it takes as an input the conductor of E and...

June 17, 2023

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Alex Cowan

Unexpected oscillations in $a_p$ values in a family of elliptic curves were observed experimentally by He, Lee, Oliver, and Pozdnyakov. We propose a heuristic explanation for these oscillations based on the "explicit formula" from analytic number theory. A crucial ingredient in this heuristic is that the distribution of the zeros of the associated $L$-functions has a quasi-periodic structure. We present empirical results for a family of elliptic curves, a family of quadratic ...

December 30, 2013

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Manjul Bhargava, Arul Shankar

In this article, we prove that the average rank of elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$, when ordered by height, is less than $1$ (in fact, less than $.885$). As a consequence of our methods, we also prove that at least four fifths of all elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ have rank either 0 or 1; furthermore, at least one fifth of all elliptic curves in fact have rank 0. The primary ingredient in the proofs of these theorems is a determination of the average size of the $5$-Selm...

March 5, 2012

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Bjorn Poonen

Bhargava and Shankar prove that as E varies over all elliptic curves over Q, the average rank of the finitely generated abelian group E(Q) is bounded. This result follows from an exact formula for the average size of the 2-Selmer group, which in turn follows from an asymptotic formula for the number of binary quartic forms over Z with bounded invariants. We explain their proof, as well as other arithmetic applications.

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Manjul Bhargava, Christopher Skinner

We prove that, when all elliptic curves over $\mathbb{Q}$ are ordered by naive height, a positive proportion have both algebraic and analytic rank one. It follows that the average rank and the average analytic rank of elliptic curves are both strictly positive.

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Zoë Batterman, Aditya Jambhale, Steven J. Miller, Akash L. Narayanan, Kishan Sharma, ... , Yao Chris

The moments of the coefficients of elliptic curve L-functions are related to numerous arithmetic problems. Rosen and Silverman proved a conjecture of Nagao relating the first moment of one-parameter families satisfying Tate's conjecture to the rank of the corresponding elliptic surface over Q(T); one can also construct families of moderate rank by finding families with large first moments. Michel proved that if j(T) is not constant, then the second moment of the family is of ...